KOLOM| Kematian Hitam Feodalisme

 

Oleh Muhammad Natsir Tahar

Pada tahun 1346, segerombolan penumpang gelap dari Asia menaiki kapal milik saudagar yang melintasi Jalur Sutra sebagai urat nadi terpenting di kawasan trans-Asia. Mereka kemudian menyebar teror kematian hitam atau The Black Death dan memakan hampir separuh penduduk dunia. Petani yang lolos dari maut bangkit untuk menuntut balas.

Giovanni Boccaccio, seorang penyair lagenda dari Florence, Italia yang menyaksikan langsung tragedi ini menulis catatan: Ketika mereka datang dengan cepat, segala akal budi dan kepandaian manusia tak berdaya menghadapinya. Mereka memiliki kecepatan luar biasa dan amat mengerikan, darah yang menetes dari hidung adalah petanda bahwa ajal sudah dekat.

Penumpang gelap yang menduduki kapal milik saudagar Genoa itu adalah tikus – tikus yang di dalam tubuh mereka hidup enterobakteria Yersinia Pestis penyebab penyakit Pes. Kisah pembantaiannya dimulai dari kota Tana hingga seluruh Mediterania. Pada 1347 gelombang penyakit ini sudah menyerang Konstantinopel, lalu pada musim semi 1348, mereka sudah mematikan separuh penduduk Prancis dan Afrika Utara, sebelum singgah ke Italia.

Daron Acemoglu menulis, begitu mengetahui penyakit ini –atau mereka menyebutnya kutukan- akan segera melanda negerinya, pada Agustus 1348 di Inggris Raja Edward III memerintahkan Uskup Agung Canterbury untuk menggelorakan doa bersama dan seluruh uskup menulis maklumat agar rakyat bersiap menghadapi petaka ini.

Ritual tersebut hampir tidak membantu, karena dalam sekejap separuh warga Inggris telah lenyap. Bencana ini secara drastis menimbulkan dampak terhadap tatanan negara dan sosial. Ketika itu rakyat ditekan kuat – kuat oleh tangan – tangan feodal. Seluruh rakyat adalah budak tani atau serf, yang diupah sangat kecil dan dicambuk.

Pada 1349 hanya sedikit petani yang tersisa dan bersiap meninggalkan ladang atau membuat perhitungan kepada tuan tanah yang tak lain adalah bangsawan – bangsawan feodal. Pada 1351 Pemerintah Inggris berupaya menghentikan gelombang tuntutan kaum tani dengan semacam Statuta Pekerja.

Namun siapa peduli, tikus – tikus penumpang gelap dari Asia itu telah membuat mereka bergelora dan menetapkan nilai yang tak bisa ditawar. Pada tahun 1381 meletus Revolusi Petani di Inggris yang digerakkan oleh Wat Tyler. Meskipun nyawanya berakhir tragis melalui hukuman mati, namun revolusi ini telah menjadikan sistem kerja paksa feodal di Inggris berhenti total. Negeri ini segera mencatat pertumbuhan pasar tenaga kerja inklusif disertai tingkat upah tinggi, yang kemudian menjadi model terbaik dunia di abad pertengahan.

Kisah ini memberi kita catatan bahwa sepak terjang feodalisme telah menitipkan mimpi buruk ke dalam sejarah panjang dunia. Feodalisme hanya bisa ditumpulkan dengan berbagai revolusi sebut saja Revolusi Agung di Inggris, Revolusi Perancis, Revolusi Amerika, atau tragedi mengerikan seperti The Black Death.

Kitab – kitab filsafat dimusnahkan, dan embrio – embrio teknologi tinggi dimatikan oleh sejarah feodalisme dalam hampir 2.000 tahun. Para tiran hanya menerima proposal teknologi senjata untuk menjinakkan rakyat dan mengobarkan perang, disamping merangkul tuhan-tuhan untuk memastikan rakyat tetap berlutut.

Bahkan hingga abad modern anasir-anasir feodalisme tetap dipertahankan agar kekuasaan menjadi kukuh. Menyimak definisi feodalisme sebagai struktur pendelegasian kekuasaan sosio-politik yang dijalankan kalangan bangsawan atau monarki untuk mengendalikan berbagai wilayah yang diklaimnya melalui kerja sama dengan pemimpin-pemimpin lokal sebagai mitra.

Dalam pengertian yang asli, struktur ini disematkan oleh sejarawan pada sistem politik di Eropa pada Abad Pertengahan, yang menempatkan kalangan kesatria dan kelas bangsawan lainnya (vassal) sebagai penguasa kawasan atau hak tertentu (disebut fief atau, dalam bahasa Latin, feodum) yang ditunjuk oleh monarki, biasanya raja atau lord.

Rakyat juga perlu disadarkan bahwa kadang-kadang ilusi nasionalisme yang memiliki tugas mulia, landasan logikanya dibelokkan oleh para politisi, sampai rakyat tidak mampu membedakan mana kepentingan negara yang hakiki dan mana kepentingan politisi yang sedang berkuasa di dalam sistem negara.

Bangsa Indonesia tradisionalis yang telah turun temurun pernah berada dalam budaya feodalisme tampak kesulitan memindahkan kuadran berpikirnya dari keturunan jelata di masa lalu, menjadi rakyat demokratik modern yang punya nilai tawar seperti petani Inggris dalam kisah The Black Death.

Dalam 2.000 tahun gen – gen feodalisme yang menancap kuat di tubuh manusia bumi menciptakan sistem algoritma, salah satunya seperti gerak refleks dari alam bawah sadar untuk membungkuk di hadapan petinggi. Padahal kita telah sepakat untuk mendirikan negara demokrasi.

Dalam sistem demokrasi yang dirancang di Athena kuno, senat dan pemimpin adalah petugas, yang sewaktu – waktu siap dihadirkan oleh sidang rakyat di Acropolis atau dipecat untuk digantikan dengan petugas yang lain.

Kita memang tidak mesti sedemokrasi itu, tapi paling tidak sebagai pengingat bahwa feodalisme dan demokrasi adalah musuh bebuyutan. Jangan coba-coba dikawinkan. ~MNT

 

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